Lab 0: Shell due 2014-8-29

Note: Due to shopping period, we will implement a grace period up until 9/10 @ 11:59 PM.

This assignment will make you more familiar with the Unix system call interface and the shell by implementing several features in a small shell. You can do this assignment on any operating system that supports the Unix API (a Zoo machine, your laptop with Linux or Mac OS, etc.). Please submit your shell using the instructions below at any time before the end of the shopping period (9/10). However, the course assumes that students have completed this assignment prior to the second class (8/29).

You are encouraged to experiment with the various shell commands mentioned in this lesson using your favorite shell, bash, for example. A rather complete and well written tutorial / document on shell scripting, namely, bash, can be found here.

While you shouldn't be shy about asking questions via Piazza if you have difficulty in this exercise, we do expect you to be able to handle this level of C programming on your own for the rest of the class. If you're not very familiar with C, consider this a quick check to see how familiar you are. Again, do feel encouraged to ask us for help if you have any questions.

Software Setup

The files you will need for this and subsequent lab assignments in this course are distributed using the Git version control system. To learn more about Git, take a look at the Git user's manual, or, if you are already familiar with other version control systems, you may find this CS-oriented overview of Git useful.

The Git repository for the labs is in /c/cs422/repo/joslab.git on the zoo machines. However you need to set up your own repository to hand in each lab. To install the files, use the commands below with the desired location. You can log into Zoo remotely via ssh.

$ mkdir ~/cs422
$ cd ~/cs422
$ /c/cs422/apps/setrepo.sh lab
Creating new repository /c/cs422/SUBMIT/lab/netid.git...
****
Now you can use 'git commit' and 'git push' to submit your code!
****
$ cd lab
$

If you want to clone the repository remotely onto a non-Zoo machine after you have configured it as above, first get the path of your remote directory by running, from your local directory:

$ git remote show origin
* remote origin
  Fetch URL: /path/to/repo
  Push  URL: /path/to/repo
...
$

Suppose it is /path/to/repo. You can use git clone on your own computer:

$ git clone -b shell netid@node.zoo.cs.yale.edu:/path/to/repo lab
Cloning into lab...
$

Git allows you to keep track of the changes you make to the code. For example, if you are finished with one of the exercises, and want to checkpoint your progress, you can commit your changes by running:

$ git commit -am 'got I/O redirection working'
Created commit 60d2135: my solution for shell exercise
 1 files changed, 1 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
$

You can keep track of your changes by using the git diff command. Running git diff will display the changes to your code since your last commit, and git diff origin/shell will display the changes relative to the initial code supplied for this lab. Here, origin/shell is the name of the git branch with the initial code you downloaded from our server for this assignment.

Hand-In Procedure

When you are ready to hand in your lab, first commit your changes with git commit, and then type git push in the lab directory. The latter will propagate your changes to your remote repository.

$ git commit -am "ready to submit my shell"
[shell e3a880d] ready to submit my shell
 2 files changed, 18 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-)

$ git push
Counting objects: 5, done.
Delta compression using up to 8 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 509 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done.
Total 3 (delta 1), reused 0 (delta 0)
To /c/cs422/SUBMIT/lab/netid.git
   f5ab5f6..3da3b46  shell -> shell
$

The xv6 shell

Open the skeleton of the xv6 shell in sh.c, and look it over. The skeleton shell contains two main parts: parsing shell commands and implementing them. The parser recognizes only simple shell commands such as the following:

ls > y
cat < y | sort | uniq | wc > y1
cat y1
rm y1
ls |  sort | uniq | wc
rm y

Cut and paste these commands into a file t.sh

You can compile the skeleton shell as follows:

$ gcc sh.c

which produces a file named a.out, which you can run:

$ ./a.out < t.sh

This execution will panic because you have not implemented several features. In the rest of this assignment you will implement those features.

Executing simple commands

Implement simple commands, such as:

$ ls

The parser already builds an execcmd for you, so the only code you have to write is for the ' ' case in runcmd. To test that you can run "ls". You might find it useful to look at the manual page for exec; type man 3 exec.

You do not have to implement quoting (i.e., treating the text between double-quotes as a single argument).

I/O redirection

Implement I/O redirection commands so that you can run:

echo "6.828 is cool" > x.txt
cat < x.txt

The parser already recognizes '>' and '<', and builds a redircmd for you, so your job is just filling out the missing code in runcmd for those symbols. Make sure your implementation runs correctly with the above test input. You might find the man pages for open (man 2 open) and close useful.

Note that this shell will not process quotes in the same way that bash, tcsh, zsh or other UNIX shells will, and your sample file x.txt is expected to contain the quotes.

Implement pipes

Implement pipes so that you can run command pipelines such as:

$ ls | sort | uniq | wc

The parser already recognizes "|", and builds a pipecmd for you, so the only code you must write is for the '|' case in runcmd. Test that you can run the above pipeline. You might find the man pages for pipe, fork, close, and dup useful.

Now you should be able the following command correctly:

$ ./a.out < t.sh

Challenge exercises

If you'd like to experiment more, you can add any feature of your choice to your shell. You might try one of the following suggestions:

  • Implement lists of commands, separated by ;
  • Implement subshells by implementing ( and )
  • Implement running commands in the background by supporting & and wait
  • Implement quoting of arguments

All of these require making changing to the parser and the runcmd function.

This completes the exercise. Commit your changes using git commit and type git push in the lab directory to submit your code.