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Any person can invent a security system so clever that he or she can't imagine a way of breaking it.

echo hello | openssl base64 aGVsbG8Kh is ascii 0150 = 01101000 011010 == 26 == a in base64

- Spartan Scytale Transposition cipher
- Substitution Cypher, e.g., Poe's
*The Gold Bug* - Double transposition
- One-time pad (XOR ⊕ magic!)
- Codebook
- Election of 1876.
- Not decided by the Supreme Court – commission was 8 republicans and 7 democrats. Guess what?
- Tilden won 184 votes (and popular vote!)
- Hayes won 165. 20 votes were in dispute.
- States included Florida, Louisiana, South Carolina, and one disputed elector in Oregon.
- Compromise: Democrats awarded 20 votes to Hayes in return for withdrawal of federal troops from the South to end Reconstruction.
- Tilden was trying to bribe officials. He had accused Hayes of bribery.

- Battle of Midway
- Allies claimed water shortage at Midway (broken desalination plant)
- Saved 100,000+ lives and 1+ years

- Post-WWII History
- Before Shannon, crypto had been a black art
- DES marked an inflection point – cryptography came out of the shadows.

- Claude Shannon
- Diffusion does not erase single character frequency counts, but removes bi-grams.
- Election of 1876 used both confusion (code book) and diffusion (permutation), albeit both were pretty lame.

- Taxonomy of Cryptography
- Key distribution problem with symmetric keys
- Digital signatures – use private key to encrypt authenticated documents

- Taxonomy of Cryptanalysis
- Forward search.
- Example- get ciphertext that could be “yes” or “no” Use public key to encrypt “yes” and “no” and compare. Either a match or something else.
- Defense: pad the message with 64 bits. Then have 2^64 versions of yes
- Can also forward email message: “Please forward the attached to Bob”

- Stream ciphers are more practical version of one time pad.
- Stretch out stream to length of message and xor.

- A5/1 – implemented in hardware – at that time, processor speed was slow.
- RC4 – possible to implement in software
- Used a lot: WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy IEEE 802.11 wireless networks) often the first choice presented to users by router configuration tools.
- 2003 superceded by WPA – Wi-Fi Protected Access., 802.11i (WPA2) standard – deprecated WEP-40 and WEP-104
- WEP-40 has 40 bit key and 24 bit initialization vector (IV) == 10 hexadecimal digits
- 40 bit key can be 5 ASCII characters of 8 bits each.
- WEP-104 is 26 hex characters, with 26 4 bit characters plus 24 bit IV , TLS

- Total of 64 bits
- Implemented in hardware
- A5/1 wiki - design shrouded in secrecy. We do not know why it was designed this way.
- If bit is in the majority, then that register steps.
- 2 or 3 registers always step
- Generates a single bit for xor

- 256 Byte values
- Table is a permutation of those values
- Invented by Ron Rivest in 1987
- RC4 stands for Rivest Cipher 4, but is trademarked by Rivest’s company, RSA.
- Also, Ron’s Code. (RC2, RC5, RC6)
- Was initially a trade secret, but description was posted in 1994, which was then broken by Bob Jenkins within days. While never acknowledged, the leaked code was found to match the proprietary software.
- How does Kerkhoff’s principal apply here?
- The array keeps changing, makes it harder to break.

- Rivest makes ‘em and Shamir breaks ‘em.
- Stream ciphers, like the old man in Monty Python’s Holy Grail, are not dead yet.
- They can fit on small devices, like IoT.

- Feistel worked at IBM.
- Born in Berlin. Came to US in 1934. WWII under house arrest until 1944 when became a US citizen, got a security clearance, and worked for the air force on IFF (Identification of Friend or Foe). BS from MIT and MS from Harvard in Physics. Developed Lucifer which became DES
- For decryption: if F(R,K) == 0, then P == C

- NBS == National Bureau of Standards
- Which became NIST = National Institute of Standards and Technology
- Issue RFP, and got only a handful of responses. Indicating that there was not much going on the cryptography world.
- After NSA involvement, people were suspicious – suspected an NSA backdoor.
- Result – much more interest in cryptography.
- 2
^{56}possible codebooks - The S-boxes are lookup tables.
- It is a Feistel Cipher
- 8 S boxes convert 48 bits to 32 bits

- S box is just a look up table
- Each row is a permutation
- 6 bits in and 4 bits out
- 48 bits becomes 32 bits

- Linear functions are easy to solve
- The S boxes are not linear – make the algorithm stronger

- This is a code book
- Use a different key, get a different code book

- AES Process which, by contrast to A5/1, was transparent.
- Conference among contestants
- Each wants to shoot holes in other ciphers
- Lots of criticism
- Feistel cipher is easy to decrypt. Here you need an invertible function

- DES has 64 bit block
- 56 bit key length
- 16 rounds
- But AES is more complicated

- You will implement this in homework.
- Opposite of AES, which has strong round function and few rounds
- Delta is magic number – bits in the decimal expansion of sqrt(5)
- 32 rounds here are like 64 rounds of DES
- Not a Feistel cipher – does not use XOR

- 56 bit key per block
- Bad idea to encrypt independently
- Partial blocks addressed with padding.

- Most popular
- XOR magic!
- ADDITIVE analogy
- A single data transmission error can mess up 2 blocks – but not more.

- Multiple meanings of MAC
- MIC – message integrity code
- We said that errors do not propagate in CBC That is in decryption, but not encryption.

- US Navy – John Walker would distribute keys-
- Side business selling keys to soviets
- Weak link in the system

- related key attack for WEP using RC4

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